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History 1: American

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  1. Lesson 1: Orientation
    10 Steps
  2. Lesson 2: The Banner of the Sun (Meso-America)
    13 Steps
  3. Lesson 3: Brave New World (The Early Explorers)
    11 Steps
  4. Lesson 4: The Colossus of Empire (The Colonies)
    11 Steps
  5. Lesson 5: Stability & Change (The Reformational Colonies)
    11 Steps
  6. Lesson 6: A City Upon A Hill (The Puritans)
    12 Steps
  7. Lesson 7: A Foreign War at Home (Wars of Control)
    11 Steps
  8. Lesson 8: Grace, the Founder of Liberty (The Great Awakening)
    14 Steps
  9. Lesson 9: Fathers of Independence (Adams, Franklin, Witherspoon, & Henry)
    11 Steps
  10. Lesson 10: Liberty or Death (The Declaration of Independence)
    11 Steps
  11. Lesson 11: Awesome Providence (The War of Independence 1)
    11 Steps
  12. Lesson 12: Awesome Providence (The War of Independence 2)
    11 Steps
  13. Lesson 13: A More Perfect Union (The Constitution)
    12 Steps
  14. Lesson 14: Federal Headship (George Washington)
    11 Steps
  15. Lesson 15: How Good & Pleasant It Is (Adams & Jefferson)
    14 Steps
  16. Lesson 16: Manifest Destiny (Settlers, Explorers, & War)
    11 Steps
  17. Lesson 17: Word & Deed (John Quincy Adams & Andrew Jackson)
    12 Steps
  18. Lesson 18: The Original United Nations (Expansion of the Early U.S.)
    11 Steps
  19. Lesson 19: Idols of Mercy (Revivals, Counterfeits, & Art)
    12 Steps
  20. Lesson 20: A House Divided 1 (The Age of Compromise & Divided Cultures)
    11 Steps
  21. Lesson 21: A House Divided 2 (Abraham Lincoln & Secession)
    13 Steps
  22. Lesson 22: The Second War for Independence (The War Between the States 1)
    11 Steps
  23. Lesson 23: Brother Against Brother (The War Between the States 2)
    11 Steps
  24. Lesson 24: The Lost Cause (Reconstruction)
    11 Steps
  25. Lesson 25: A New Normal (The West, Immigration, & Robber Barons)
    11 Steps
  26. Lesson 26: Theology As Biography (Theodore Roosevelt & Booker T. Washington)
    12 Steps
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ASSIGNMENT:

  1. Read the following “Letter of Hernando de Soto, in Florida, to the Justice and Board of Magistrates in Santiago de Cuba.”
  2. Write a short essay or discuss with your instructor: What do you notice about de Soto’s attitude and object in conquering Florida?

SELECTION: “Letter of Hernando de Soto, in Florida, to the Justice and Board of Magistrates in Santiago de Cuba.”

VERY NOBLE GENTLEMEN:

The being in a new country, not very distant indeed from that where you are, still with some sea between, a thousand years appear to me to have gone by since any thing has been heard from you; and although I left some letters written at Havana [his will], to go off in three ways, it is indeed long since I have received one. However, since opportunity offers by which I may send an account of what it is always my duty to give, I will relate what passes, and I believe will be welcome to persons I know favorably, and are earnest for my success.

I took my departure from Havana with all my armament on Sunday, the 18th of May, although I wrote that I should leave on the 25th of the month. I anticipated the day, not to lose a favorable wind, which changed, nevertheless, for calms, upon our getting into the Gulf; still these were not so continuous as to prevent our casting anchor on this coast, as we did at the end of eight days, which was on [the following] Sunday, the festival of Espiritu Santo [Holy Spirit].

Having fallen four or five leagues below the port, without any one of my pilots being able to tell where we were, it became necessary that I should go in the brigantines and look for it.

In doing so, and in entering the mouth of the port, we were detained three days; and likewise because we had no knowledge of the passage – a bay that runs up a dozen leagues or more from the sea – we were so long delayed that I was obliged to send my Lieutenant-General, Vasco Porcallo de Figueroa, in the brigantines, to take possession of a town at the end of the bay. I ordered all the men and horses to be landed on a beach, whence, with great difficulty, we went on Trinity Sunday and to join Vasco Porcallo. The Indians of the coast, because of some fears of us, have abandoned all the country, so that for thirty leagues not a man of them has halted.

At my arrival here I received news of there being a Christian in the possession of a chief, and I sent Baltazar de Gallegos, with 40 men of the horse, and as many of the foot, to endeavor to get him. He found the man a day’s journey from this place, with eight or ten Indians, whom he brought into my power. We rejoiced no little over him, for he speaks the language; and although he had forgotten his own, it directly returned to him. His name is Juan Ortiz, an hidalgo, native of Sevilla.

In consequence of this occurrence, I went myself for the Cacique, and came back with him in peace. I then sent Baltazar de Gallegos, with eighty lancers, and a hundred foot soldiers, to enter the country. He has found fields of maize, beans, and pumpkins, with other fruits, and provision in such quantity as would suffice to subsist a very large army without its knowing a want. Having been allowed, without interruption, to reach the town of a Cacique named Urripacoxit [others say Paricoxi], master of the one we are in, also of many other towns, some Indians were sent to him to treat for peace. This, he writes, having been accomplished, the Cacique failed to keep certain promises, whereupon he seized about 17 persons, among whom are some of the principal men; for in this way, it appears to him, he can best secure a performance. Among those he detains are some old men of authority, as great as can be among such people, who have information of the country farther on.

They say that three days’ journey from where they are, going by some towns and huts, all well inhabited, and having many maize-fields, is a large town called Acuera, where with much convenience we might winter; and that afterwards, farther on, at the distance of two days’ journey, there is another town, called Ocale. It is so large, and they so extol it, that I dare not repeat all that is said. There is to be found in it a great plenty of all the things mentioned; and fowls, a multitude of turkeys, kept in pens, and herds of tame deer that are tended. What this means I do not understand, unless it be the cattle, of which we brought the knowledge with us.

They say there are many trades among that people, and much intercourse, an abundance of gold and silver, and many pearls. May it please God that this may be so; for of what these Indians say I believe nothing but what I see, and must well see; although they know, and have it for a saying, that if they lie to me it will cost them their lives. This interpreter [Juan Ortiz] puts a new life into us, in affording the means of our understanding these people, for without him I know not what would become of us. Glory be to God, who by His goodness has directed all, so that it appears as if He had taken this enterprise in His especial keeping, that it may be for His service, as I have supplicated, and do dedicate it to Him.

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